Impulsive buying is one of the ways of buying in which there is a short time interval between viewing the goods and deciding to buy them. Nowadays, the investigating of the process of impulsive buying, as one of the methods of increasing sales rate, is prevalent in many retail and production units. This research aims at investigating impulsive buying constituents and also factors increasing impulsive buying rate with regard to consumption and nondurable goods. This research is carried out using an applied approach in which a questionnaire-based survey is carried out, with the consumers of consumption and nondurable goods regarded as its source of data and information. A total of 384 usable questionnaires were collected and analyzed utilizing correlation and regression analysis to establish the relationships in the model. The results provide a more comprehensive perspective of impulsive buying. Also, the results show that discount shopping, store’s layout and decoration, having credit cards, as well as, income levels influence customers’ impulsive buying, respectively.
Impulsive buying; Nondurable goods; Store’s layout and decoration; Discount shoppin
Crude oil Prices, exchange rates and the price of gold are used as macroeconomic factors could affect stock exchange market if changes in these variables could cause fluctuation in stock exchange Price index and in turn increase the risk of activity in the markets. Considering the importance of these variables, the impact of global crude oil prices, exchange rates and the price of gold coins on the Tehran stock exchange price index return volatility is surveyed. Stationary adjusted dickey fuller test is first generalized. Descriptive statistics are presented, and then TEPIX index returns are modeled. Results indicate that there was heterogeneity in variance, so the use of the model the GARCH is possible. After modeling returns volatility in the market price and Diagnostic tests that showed the model fitness, it was clarified that the changes in the price of crude oil, significantly cause volatility returns in stock exchange market.But results showed that changes in the price of gold coin and exchange rate has no significant effect on the Tehran Stock Exchange. It makes sense that the stock of a single item in a country such as Iran with a heavy reliance on crude oil price, are being affected by the changes. This means that in addition to the probable effects of crude oil price, any changes in the price can also cause volatility and uncertainty in the Tehran Stock Exchange
Crude oil prices; Exchange rates; Price of gold; Tehran stock exchange market; General Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH).
This article investigates the Iranian consumer behavior about green products. Their environmental beliefs and their decision making process in purchasing green/eco-friendly products. In this paper it has been attempted to collect data by using a questionnaire including 34 questions. The respondents were 272 civilians who lived in Tehran and at least had diplomas. In our research we used data correlation analysis, and for supplemental analysis t-student analysis and one-way ANOVA were used. Results show that a positive correlation exists between environmental opinions and green purchasing behavior, between previous experiences of consumers and perceived quality of green goods, as well as, between perceived quality of green products and green purchasing behavior. But there is no significant correlation between verbal advertising and perceived quality of green products. Thus, the conclusion is that (according to a positive opinion about environment among Iranian consumers and its positive correlation with green purchasing behavior) if they can ensure the quality of green products, they will decide to buy these products. studying of the Iranian consumers’ behavior toward green products would be useful to politicians and companies who are willing to participate in green products industry, to place effective policies and strategies to protect the environment, and also persuade investors to bring more financial support. Moreover, the result will provide more evidence about the differences between consumers behavior in different countries around the eco-friendly products.
Consumer behavior; Word of mouth (WOM); Perceived quality; Green purchasing behavior; Green products.
Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) is the core concept of relationship marketing and is increasingly addressed in scholarly and business articles. However, there is a big gap in the literature to make CLV thoroughly applicable in business. This paper aims to illuminate the trend of CLV by critical analysis of the literature. For this purpose, after revealing the scoping map of the research area, CLV concepts, the proposed mathematical models besides its techniques and mentioned categorization, its application, and its limitations are investigated. The research exposes the need to a comprehensive model for increasing the applicability of CLV. In addition, the scoping map illuminates the need for more research in the area of implementation and validation.
Customer Lifetime Value; CRM; Valuation; Customer retention; Relationship marketing.
The main aim of this paper is to examine the constitutive dimensions and parameters of the studied organizational culture, in the framework of a national model. The paper is based on a research, and the designed model for assessing organizational culture can be used in Iranian organizations. Theoretical principals, upstream documents, religious principals, and a comparative study based on interviews made with managers, has been used to design this model. Also, the model validated survey researches. Questionnaires were designed and theCronbach alpha test, resulted in 0.89. Using Cokran formula, a sample of 1480 persons were selected for this survey, and the results were analyzed via descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Results show that there is a correlation between dimensions and parameters of designed organizational culture model.
Pattern; Organizational culture; Iranian organizations; Native
This research was conducted to survey the relationship between learning school and readiness for change in one of the non-profit educational complexes in Tehran. Learning school, that is derived from learning organization concept, consists of two aspects based on Bowen’s et al. definition, and readiness for change is defined in three aspects using the concept by Dunham et al.. Measuring tools in this research include two of Bowen’s et al. SSP-LO (School Success Profile-Learning Organization) questionnaires, and Dunham’s readiness for change questionnaire whose reliability based on Cronbach's Alpha index was calculated to be 0.94 and 0.87, respectively. To test the research hypotheses, parametric individual T-test and pearson’s correlation coefficient were used in addition to descriptive statistics. The research results showed that 1) there is a meaningful relationship between learning school and readiness for change; 2) a significant relationship was found between actions of learning school and readiness for change; and 3) no meaningful relationship was determined between feelings of learning school and readiness for change.
Aspects of learning school; Readiness for change; Actions; Feelings.
The purpose of present research is to identifyrelationship between organizational climate with job motivation, and organizational citizenship behavior at the Bu-Ali Sina university. The research method is descriptive- correlation. Statistical population included all staff (non-faculty employees) comprised of 750 people, and the sample size of 250 subjects was determined based on the cochran formula. The sampling method used is proportional stratified random sampling. Data collected were used from two questionnaires with thses items: organizational climate questionnaire of sasman and diep, organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire of graham, and job motivation questionnaire of lodahl and kejnar. For appointment of questionnaires, validity of the method, content-related validity, and to assess scale the reliability of the questionnaires, cronbach'salpha coefficient was used. Reliability coefficient was calculated for the questionnaires. It was estimated to be 0.77, 0.90 and 0.77 respectively. Results of the level of organizational climate, job motivation, and organizational citizenship behavior was above the average level. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that there is a significant positive correlation between organizational climate and job motivation, and organizational citizenship behavior. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that the components of organizational climate, factors of reward satisfactionand role clearness and agreement are most effective in predicting job motivation, and the factor of aim clearness and agreement has the highest impact prediction of organizational citizenship behavior
Organizational climate, Job motivation, Organizational citizenship behavior, Bu-Ali Sina university